cryptography in cyber security

Cryptography is the study of secure communications techniques that allow only the sender and intended recipient of a message to view its contents. The term is derived from the Greek word kryptos, which means hidden

cryptography in cyber security

Cryptography is the study of secure communications techniques that allow only the sender and intended recipient of a message to view its contents. The term is derived from the Greek word kryptos, which means hidden

1. Cryptographic Primer

Cryptographic primitives are mathematical operations used to protect sensitive data and ensure the integrity of computations performed using the data. They were originally designed to withstand human error and machine breakdowns and remain secure even under hostile conditions such as those encountered by military forces. Cryptographers take advantage of many aspects of modern computing to defend against attacks from hackers and foreign intelligence services. A cryptographic primitive may be implemented by hardware, software, or both.

2. Symmetric Encryption

Symmetric encryption algorithms are those whose keys are the same size as their messages. Common symmetric encryption algorithms include DES, AES, RC4, Blowfish, Twofish, Camellia, IDEA, CAST5, and RSA. Each algorithm provides different levels of security and performance. AES is considered the strongest of current symmetric encryption algorithms.

3. Public Key Infrastructure

Public key infrastructure (PKI) is a framework for managing public/private key pairs. This type of cryptography is based on two types of keys: public keys and private keys. PKI allows users to communicate securely without being concerned about whether the other party is trustworthy. By distributing public keys widely, anyone can create his or her own digital signature. To verify the identity of a sender, a receiver uses the corresponding private key to decrypt the message.

4. One-Time Pad

A one-time pad (OTP) is a form of secret writing where the message itself is used as the ciphertext rather than generating a new text every time it is sent. The original version of this method was invented in 18th century England but is still commonly used today. It relies on a shared random bit string called the “key” to encrypt and decrypt any given message. OTP requires long strings of bits that are difficult to store and transmit, rendering them impractical for most applications. However, OTP remains resistant to all known classical cryptanalytic methods and is therefore common among nations with government-level classification requirements for classified documents.